Substance Abuse

Home > Brain Injury > Causes/Types of Acquired Brain Injury > Substance Abuse

Substance Abuse

Overview

People abuse substances such as drugs, alcohol, and tobacco for varied and complicated reasons, but it is clear that our society pays a significant cost. The toll for this abuse can be seen in our hospitals and emergency departments through direct damage to health by substance abuse and its link to physicaltrauma. Jails and prisons tally daily the strong connection between crime and drug dependence and abuse. Although use of some drugs such as cocaine has declined, use of other drugs such as heroin and “club drugs” has increased.

  • Finding effective treatment for and prevention of substance abuse has been difficult. Through research, we now have a better understanding of the behavior. Studies have made it clear that drug education and prevention aimed at children and adolescents offers the best chance to curb abuse nationally.
  • The 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse estimated the number of users of illicit drugs in the United States to be about 13 million. In addition, the survey estimated that 10% of Americans abuse or are dependent on alcohol, and 25% of Americans smoke cigarettes.

Abused substances produce some form of intoxication that alters judgment, perception, attention, or physical control.

Many substances can bring on withdrawal-an effect caused by cessation or reduction in the amount of the substance used. Withdrawal can range from mildanxiety to seizures and hallucinations. Drug overdose may also cause death.

Nearly all these drugs also can produce a phenomenon known as tolerance where you must use a larger amount of the drug to produce the same level of intoxication.

  • Tobacco: People cite many reasons for using tobacco, including pleasure, improved performance and vigilance, relief of depression, curbing hunger, and weight control.
    • The primary addicting substance in cigarettes is nicotine. But cigarette smoke contains thousands of other chemicals that also damage health. Hazards include heart disease, lung cancer and emphysemapeptic ulcer disease, and strokeWithdrawal symptoms of smoking include anxiety, hunger, sleep disturbances, and depression.
    • Smoking is responsible for nearly a half million deaths each year. Tobacco use costs the nation an estimated $100 billion a year, mainly in direct and indirect health care costs.
  • Alcohol: Although many people have a drink as a “pick me up,” alcohol actually depresses the brain. Alcohol lessens your inhibitions, slurs speech, and decreases muscle control and coordination, and may lead to alcoholism.
    • Withdrawal from alcohol can cause anxiety, irregular heartbeat, tremor, seizures, and hallucinations. In its severest form, withdrawal combined with malnutrition can lead to a life-threatening condition called delirium tremens (DTs). Alcohol is the most common cause of liver failure in the US. The drug can cause heart enlargement and cancer of the esophagus,pancreas, and stomach.
    • In addition to its direct health effects, officials associate alcohol abusewith nearly half of all fatal motor vehicle accidents. In 1992, the total economic cost of alcohol abuse was estimated at $150 billion.
  • Marijuana (also known as grass, pot, weed, herb): Marijuana, which comes from the plant Cannabis sativa, is the most commonly used illegal drug in the United States. The plant produces delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient associated with intoxication. Marijuana resin, called hashish, contains an even higher concentration of THC.
    • The drug is usually smoked, but it can also be eaten. Its smoke irritates your lungs more and contains more cancer-causing chemicals than tobacco smoke. Common effects of marijuana use include pleasure, relaxation, and impaired coordination and memory.
    • Often, the first illegal drug people use, marijuana is associated with increased risk of progressing to more powerful and dangerous drugs such as cocaine and heroin. The risk for progressing to cocaine is 104 times higher if you have smoked marijuana at least once than if you never smoked marijuana.
  • Cocaine (also known as crack, coke, snow, rock): In 1997, an estimated 1.5 million people abused cocaine in the United States.
    • Derived from the coca plant of South America, cocaine can be smoked, injected, snorted, or swallowed. The intensity and duration of the drug’s effects depend on how you take it. Desired effects include pleasure and increased alertness.
    • Short-term effects also include paranoia, constriction of blood vessels leading to heart damage or stroke, irregular heartbeat, and death. Severe depression and reduced energy often accompany withdrawal.
    • Both short- and long-term use of cocaine has been associated with damage to the heart, the brain, the lung, and the kidneys.
  • Heroin (also known as smack, horse): Heroin use continues to increase. A 1998 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse indicated 2.4 million Americans used heroin, including 81,000 new users in 1997. Officials see increased use mainly among people younger than 26 years, often women. In 1997, 87% of heroin users were younger than 26 years, compared to 61% in 1992.
    • Effects of heroin intoxication include drowsiness, pleasure, and slowedbreathing. Withdrawal can be intense and can include vomiting,abdominal cramps, diarrhea, confusion, aches, and sweating.
    • Overdose may result in death from decreased breathing. Because heroin is usually injected, often with dirty needles, use of the drug can triggerother health complications including destruction of your heart valves,HIV/AIDS, infections, tetanus, and botulism.
  • Methamphetamines (also known as meth, crank, ice, speed, crystal): Use of this drug also has increased, especially in the West. Methamphetamine is a powerful stimulant that increases alertness, decreases appetite, and gives asensation of pleasure.
    • The drug can be injected, snorted, smoked, or eaten. It shares many of the same toxic effects as cocaine-heart attacks, dangerously high blood pressure, and stroke.
    • Withdrawal often causes depression, abdominal cramps, and increased appetite. Other long-term effects include paranoia, hallucinations, weight loss, destruction of teeth, and heart damage.
  • Club drugs: The club scene and rave parties have popularized an assortment of other drugs. Many young people believe these drugs are harmless or even healthy. These are the more popular club drugs.
    • Ecstasy (also called MDMA, Adam, STP): This isa stimulant andhallucinogen used to improve mood and to maintain energy, often for all-night dance parties. Long-term use may cause damage to the brain’s ability to regulate sleep, pain, memory, and emotions.
    • GHB (also called Liquid XTC, G, blue nitro): Once sold at health food stores,GHB’s effects are related to dose. Effects range from mild relaxation to coma or death. GHB is often used as a date-rape drug because it is tasteless, colorless, and acts as a powerful sedative.
    • Rohypnol (also called roofies, roche): This is another sedative that can be used as a date-rape drug. Effects include low blood pressuredizziness, abdominal cramps, confusion, and impaired memory.
    • Ketamine (also called Special K, K): This is an anesthetic that can be taken orally or injected. Ketamine (Ketalar) can impair memory and attention. Higher doses can cause amnesia, paranoia and hallucinations, depression, and difficulty breathing.
    • LSD (also called acid, microdot) and mushrooms (also called shrooms, magic mushrooms, peyote, buttons): Popular in the 1960s, LSD has been revived in the club scene. LSD and hallucinogenic mushrooms can cause hallucinations, numbness, nausea, and increased heart rate. Long-term effects include unwanted “flashbacks” and psychosis(hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and mood disturbances).
    • PCP (also known as angel dust, hog, love boat): PCP isa powerful anesthetic used in veterinary medicine. Its effects are similar to those of ketamine but often stronger. The anesthetic effects are so strong that you can break your arm but not feel any pain. Usually, tobacco or marijuana cigarettes are dipped into PCP and then smoked.

Substance Abuse Causes

Use and abuse of substances such as cigarettes, alcohol, and illegal drugs may begin in childhood or the teen years. Certain risk factors may increase someone’s likelihood to abuse substances.

  • Factors within a family that influence a child’s early development have been shown to be related to increased risk of drug abuse.
    • Chaotic home environment
    • Ineffective parenting
    • Lack of nurturing and parental attachment
  • Factors related to a child’s socialization outside the familymay alsoincrease risk of drug abuse.
    • Inappropriately aggressive or shy behavior in the classroom
    • Poor social coping skills
    • Poor school performance
    • Association with a deviant peer group
    • Perception of approval of drug use behavior

Substance Abuse Symptoms

Friends and family may be among the first to recognize the signs of substance abuse. Early recognition increases chances for successful treatment. Signs to watch for include the following:

  • Giving up past activities such as sports, homework, or hanging out with new friends
  • Declining grades
  • Aggressiveness and irritability
  • Forgetfulness
  • Disappearing money or valuables
  • Feeling rundown, hopeless, depressed, or even suicidal
  • Sounding selfish and not caring about others
  • Use of room deodorizers and incense
  • Paraphernalia such as baggies, small boxes, pipes, and rolling paper
  • Getting drunk or high on drugs on a regular basis
  • Lying, particularly about how much alcohol or other drugs he or she is using
  • Avoiding friends or family in order to get drunk or high
  • Planning drinking in advance, hiding alcohol, drinking or using other drugs alone
  • Having to drink more to get the same high
  • Believing that in order to have fun you need to drink or use other drugs
  • Frequent hangovers
  • Pressuring others to drink or use other drugs
  • Taking risks, including sexual risks
  • Having “blackouts”-forgetting what he or she did the night before
  • Constantly talking about drinking or using other drugs
  • Getting in trouble with the law
  • Drinking and driving
  • Suspension from school or work for an alcohol or drug-related incident

When to Seek Medical Care

If you recognize you have a substance abuse problem and want to quit, a doctor can refer you to community resources. A doctor also may prescribe medications to control cravings and withdrawal or help manage medical complications resulting from substance abuse. Let your doctor know what drugs you use and how you take them. Call your doctor if you recognize any of the followingsymptoms:

  • Mild tremors or an alcohol withdrawalseizure not accompanied by hallucinations or confusion
  • Increasing abdominal girth
  • Leg swelling
  • Cough that won’t go away
  • Continuing feelings of sadness or depression
  • Pain at an injection site

If any of the following occur, call 911 or go to a hospital’s emergency departmentimmediately:

  • Thoughts of harming yourself or others
  • Confusion or ongoing hallucinations
  • Difficulty speaking, numbness, weakness, severe headache, visual changes, or trouble keeping balance
  • Severe pain at an injection site (may be accompanied by redness, swelling,discharge, and fever)
  • Dark, cola-colored urine
  • Any suspicion that you were sexually assaulted while under the influence

Substance Abuse Treatment

Medical Treatment

Most substances abusers believe they can stop using drugs on their own, but a majority who try do not succeed. Research shows that long-term drug use alters brain function and strengthens compulsions to use drugs. This craving continues even after your drug use stops.

Because of these ongoing cravings, the most important component of treatment is preventingrelapse. Treating substance abuse depends on both the person and the substance being used. Behavioral treatment provides you with strategies to cope with your drug cravings and ways to avoid relapse. Your doctor may prescribe medications, such as nicotine patches and methadone, to control withdrawal symptoms and drug cravings.

Often, a drug user has an underlying mental disorder, one that increases risk for substance abuse. Such disorders must be treated medically and through counseling along with the drug abuse.

Prevention

Substance abuse may start in childhood or adolescence. Abuse prevention efforts in schools and community settings now focus on school-age groups. Programs seek to increase communication between parents and their children, to teach resistance skills, and to correct children’s misperceptions about cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs and the consequences of their use. Most importantly, officials seek to develop, through education and the media, an environment of social disapproval from children’s peers and families.

source http://www.emedicinehealth.com/substance_abuse/article_em.htm